In the absence of a rapid success of migration partnerships, high political expectations, 76 After about a year, the European Commission has therefore reduced its targets and moved ad hoc dialogues on migration with a number of countries of origin with which it intends to conclude readmission agreements in 2018.77 The EU is not seeking new migration partnerships, not least because Member States have different geographical priorities: 78 tend to move closer to the main countries of origin of arriving asylum seekers. European Commission, the European Union`s Emergency Trust Fund for Africa , ec.europa. eu/europeaid/sites/devco/files/constitutive-agreement-annex-2015-7293-20151020_en.pdf (called January 8, 2018). European Commission, the promised EU contribution, ec.europa.eu/trustfundforafrica/sites/euetfa/files/eu_contri-butions_pledged_1.pdf (called 31 July 2018). Elise Kervyn and Raphael Shilhav, An Emergency for Whom? The EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa – Migration Routes and Development Assistance in Africa (Oxford: Oxfam International, November 2017), www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam. org/files/file_attachments/bp-emergency-for-who-eutf-africa-migration-151117-de.pdf (called November 16, 2017). European Commission Annual Report 2017: European Union Africa Trust Fund (Brussels, March 2018), ec.europa.eu/trust Fundforafrica/sites/euetfa/files/2017_tffa_en_web_lowres _final05.pdf (see 20 March 2018). European Commission, the EU`s emergency trust fund for Africa, ec.europa.eu/trustfundforafrica/content/homepage_en (called 31 July 2018). Bilateral cooperation between Spain and Morocco since the 1990s is seen as an example of fruitful long-term cooperation in this area15. The European Commission has been negotiating a readmission agreement with Morocco for 15 years, with no success so far. A number of Member States have insisted that the Commission continue the highly controversial request that Morocco take back not only its own citizens, but also third-country nationals (which is not included in the bilateral readmission agreement with Spain).
This position runs counter to the intention of the 2013 EU-Morocco Mobility Partnership.17 The 1999 Treaty of Amsterdam incorporated most of the existing European cooperation into the Eu framework. These include border management, asylum and migration policy. While the 2009 Lisbon Treaty has once again strengthened the EU`s position, the common policy still covers only certain areas, while intergovernmental cooperation continues to predominate in many other areas (2). the EU has jurisdiction only for harmonisation, with the power to adopt directives guaranteeing minimum standards for visas and the treatment of third-country nationals.3 The Lisbon Treaty also authorised the Commission to: Readmission Agreement .4 European External Action Service, EUTF action document for the implementation of the Horn of Africa window: promoting economic opportunities and job creation for refugees and host communities in Ethiopia, in support of the Comprehensive Refugee Response Framework (CRRF) in Ethiopia, ec.europa.eu/trust fundforafrica/sites/euetfa/files/ad_ethiopia_-_crrf_final_1.pdf (available September 27, 2018). Indeed, the EU has already concluded bilateral readmission agreements before the Lisbon Treaty came into force. This power is expressly highlighted in Article 79, paragraph 3, of the TFUE.