Paris Agreement Country Pledges

Norway is the third third of the UNFCCC to submit its contribution (or national offer) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Norway is committed to reducing its CO2 emissions by 40% from 1990 levels by 2030. The offer goes even further and expresses the desire to consider an increase in ambition above 40% and sets a long-term goal (LTG) of achieving carbon neutrality by the middle of the century. InDCs become CNDs – nationally determined contributions – as soon as a country formally adheres to the agreement. There are no specific requirements as to how or how many countries should reduce emissions, but there were political expectations about the nature and rigour of the targets set by different countries. As a result, the scale and ambition of national plans vary widely, largely reflecting each country`s capacity, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, has committed to cleaning up its CO2 emissions by 2030 at the latest and reducing CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60-65% by 2030 from 2005 levels. India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% from 2005 levels by 2030 and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil fuels. As part of Pakistan`s INDC, the country submitted a declaration of support for the fight against climate change, but did not set concrete targets. Pakistan stated that the specifics of its climate policy would come, but in practice, „Pakistan has an obligation to reduce its emissions after reaching peaks, to the extent that this is possible depending on affordability, international climate finance, technology transfer and capacity building. As such, Pakistan can only make concrete commitments if we have reliable data on our peak emissions.

At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) were created to negotiate a legal instrument to mitigate climate change from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015. [62] This provision requires the „link“ between the various Co2 emissions trading schemes – since measured emission reductions must avoid „double counting,“ the transferred mitigation results must be counted as a gain in emission units for one party and as a reduction in emission units for the other party. [36] Due to the heterogeneity of NDCs and national emissions trading systems, ITMOs will provide a format for global connections under the aegis of the UNFCCC. [38] This provision also puts pressure on countries to implement emission management systems – if a country wants to use more cost-effective cooperative approaches to achieve its NPNs, they need to monitor carbon units for their economies. [39] Reports on national communications are often several hundred pages long and cover a country`s actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as a description of its vulnerabilities and effects of climate change. [90] National communications are established in accordance with guidelines adopted by the UNFCCC Conference of Parties. Contributions (planned) at the national level (NDC), which form the basis of the Paris Agreement, are shorter and less detailed, but also follow a standard structure and are subject to technical review by experts. In Mozambique`s INDC, the country proposes to reduce emissions by 76.5 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent between 2020 and 2030. However, Mozambique rejects its INDC and says the figures it is targeting are surrounded by great uncertainty and need to be reassessed and reassessed by early 2018, if not before.

Commits to reduce emissions by 29% for agriculture, 31% for energy and 21% for forests and land use by 2030, compared to a business as usual scenario.